Posted in Music, Unquantified fragments of numbers

The Boundary of the Boundless

 

according to necessity, for they pay the penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice in accordance with the ordering of time

 

(A) INDEFINITE (APEIRON)

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I.

“Of those who declared that the first principle is one, moving and indefinite, Anaximander… said that the indefinite was the first principle and element of things that are, and he was the first to call the first principle indefinite [apeiron]. He says that the first principle is neither water nor any other of the things called elements, but some other nature which is indefinite, out of which come to be all the heavens and the worlds in them. The things that are perish into the things out of which they come to be.”

Simplicius

II.

“This does not have a first principle, but seems to be the first principle of the rest, and to contain all things and steer all things, as all declare who do not fashion other causes aside from the infinite… and this is divine. For it is deathless and indestructible, as Anaximander says and most of the natural philosophers.”

Aristotle

III.

“He declares that what arose from the eternal and is productive of hot and cold was separated off at the coming to be of the cosmos, and a kind of sphere of flame from this grew around the dark mist about the earth like bark about a tree. When it was broken off and enclosed in certain circles, the sun, moon and stars came to be.”

Pseudo-Plutarch

 

(B) COSMOLOGY

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I.

“The earth’s shape is curved, round, like a stone column. We walk on one of the surfaces and the other one is set opposite. The stars come to be as a circle of fire separated off from the fire in the cosmos and enclosed by dark mist. There are vents, certain tube-like passages at which the stars appear. For this reason, eclipses occur when the vents are blocked. The moon appears sometimes waxing sometimes waning as the passages are blocked. The circle of the sun is twenty-seven times <that of the earth> and that of the moon <18 times>, and the sun is highest, and the circles of the fixed stars are lowest.”

— Hippolytus,

 

II.

“Anaximander says there is a circle 28 times the earth, like a chariot wheel, with its rim hollow and full of fire. It lets the fire appear through an orifice at one point, as through the nozzle of a bellows; and this is the sun.”

Aetius

 

III.

“Some, like Anaximander… declare that the earth is at rest on account of its similarity. For it is no more fitting for what is established at the center and equally related to the extremes to move up rather than down or sideways. And it is impossible for it to make a move simultaneously in opposite directions. Therefore, it is at rest of necessity.

Aristotle

 

IV.

“The earth is in mid-air [aloft] not controlled by anything, but staying put because of its distance from all things.”

Hippolytus

 

(C) ORIGIN OF LIVING ORGANISMS & HUMAN BEINGS

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I.

“Anaximander says that the first animals were produced in moisture, enclosed in thorny barks. When their age increased they came out into the drier part, their bark broke off, and they lived a different mode of life for a short time.”

Aetius

 

II.

“He also declares that in the beginning humans were born from other kinds of animals, since other animals quickly manage on their own, and humans alone require lengthy nursing. For this reason, in the beginning they would not have been preserved if they had been like this.”

— Pseudo-Plutarch

 

III.

 

“Anaximander… believed that there arose from heated water and earth either fish or animals very like fish. In these humans grew and were kept inside as embryos up to puberty. Then finally they burst and men and women came forth already able to nourish themselves.”

Censorinus

 

Source:

http://home.wlu.edu/~mahonj/Ancient_Philosophers/Anaximander.htm

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Author:

"If he's honest, he'll steal; if he's human, he'll murder; if he's faithful, he'll deceive. Being at a loss to resolve these questions, I am resolved to leave them without any resolution." I have so much to say to you that I am afraid I shall tell you nothing."

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